Michael Reddy, Ph.D, CPC
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Scholarly References to 1979 Article

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Letter from William M. Reddy, Ph.D., Chair, Deparment of History, Duke University (my brother), on the surprising number of references to the original conduit metaphor article.

June 12, 2007

Dear Michael,

Two years ago, in California, I got to know a linguist named Gregory Ward (Northwestern). He was surprised to learn that I was your brother, and very dismayed to learn that you, the author of the classic article "The Conduit Metaphor," had left academia.

Same thing happened at a conference at UCLA in March: Zoltán Kövecses, a linguist from Budapest, asked me if I was related to you, and expressed dismay that you were not in academia.

The other day I was messing around with Web of Science and checked the number of hits that showed up for "The Conduit Metaphor." A list of 354 articles came up. (Attached.)

This is a very high number of hits for a scientific publication. The average article gets about 1 hit. Articles in the very top journals will average 10 hits. Anything over 50 is fantastic. A total of 354 is truly a classic article. Many people get promoted to full professor with 354 hits for their whole career.

Just thought you would be interested.


The list of 354 scholarly/scientific references to the 1979 article from the Web of Science, June 2007.  These break down as follows: 

  • 137 in linguistics
  • 45 in information science
  • 43 in psychology
  • 38 in education
  • 17 in sociology
  • 15 in anthropology
  • 10 in law
  • 9 in business/economics
  • 8 in neurology
  • 7 in medicine
  • 5 in political science
  • 4 each in the arts, biology, environmental science, and mathematics
  • 1 each in architecture, geography, parapsychology and robotics

Abbott, C., Eubanks, P., “How academics and practitioners evaluate technical texts:  A focus group study,” Journal of Business and Technical Communication, Apr. 2005, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 171–218

Ackermann, E., “Direct and mediated experience: Their role in learning,” Lessons from Learning: SE IFIP Transactions A—Computer Science and Technology, 1994, vol. 46, pp. 13–22

Adelsward, V., Sachs, L., “The messenger’s dilemmas: Giving and getting information in genealogical mapping for hereditary cancer,” Health Risk & Society, Jul. 2003, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 125–138

Ahearn, L.M., “Language and agency,” Annual Review of Anthropology, 2001, vol. 30, pp. 109–137

Allbritton, D.W., “When metaphors function as schemas: Some cognitive effects of conceptual metaphors,” Metaphor and Symbolic Activity, 1995, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 33–46

Allbritton, D.W., McKoon, G, Gerrig, R.J., “Metaphor-based schemas and text representations: Making connections through conceptual metaphors,” Journal of Experimental Psychology, Learning, Memory and Cognition, May 1995, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 612–625

Alldredge, S., Derryberry, W.P., Crowson, M., Iran-Nejad, A., “Rethinking the origin of morality and moral development,” Journal of Mind and Behavior, Winter–Spring 2000, vol. 21, no. 1–2, pp. 105–128

Andresen, J.T., “The behaviorist turn in recent theories of language,” Behavior and Philosophy, Spring–Summer 1992, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 1–19

Appelt, D.E., “Planning and language generation in problem-solving systems,” AFIPS Conference Proceedings, 1985, vol. 54, pp. 99–+

Arrington, P.K., “Tropes of the composing process,” College English, Apr. 1986, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 325–338

Ashton, E., “Extending the scope of metaphor: An examination of definitions old and new and their significance for education,” Educational Studies, Jul. 1997, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 195–208

Avison, D.E., Eardley, W.A., Powell, P., “Suggestions for capturing corporate vision in strategic information systems,” Omega—International Journal of Management Science, Aug. 1998, Vol. 26, No. 4, pp. 443–459

Axley, S.R., “Managerial and organizational communication in terms of the conduit metaphor,” Academy of Management Review, 1984, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 428–437

Babrow, A.S., Kline, K.N., “From ‘reducing’ to ‘coping with’ uncertainty: Reconceptualizing the central challenge in breast self-exams,” Social Science and Medicine, Dec. 2000, vol. 51, no. 12, pp. 1805–1816

Bakker, E.J., “Discourse and performance: Involvement, visualization and presence in Homeric poetry,” Classical Antiquity, Apr. 1993, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 1–29

Barclay, M.W., “The metaphoric foundation of literal language: Towards a theory of the reification and meaning of psychological constructs,” Theory & Psychology, Jun. 1997, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 355–372

Bartelt, G., “The ethnography of second-language production,” IRAL—International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, Feb. 1997, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 23–35

Bechky, B.A., “Sharing meaning across occupational communities: The transformation of understanding on a production floor,” Organization Science, May–Jun. 2003, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 312–330

Belz, J.A., “Sight, space and symbolism: Motivating German case alternation in metaphorical extensions of physical domains,” American Journal of Semiotics, 1992, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 77–87

Berlin, R.M., Olson, M.E., Cano, C.E., Engel, S., “Metaphor and psychotherapy,” American Journal of Psychotherapy, Jul. 1991, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 359–367

Bhatia, S., “Language socialisation and the construction of socio-moral meanings,” Journal of Moral Education, Jun. 2000, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 149–166

Bhatia, S., “Morality in everyday life: Developmental perspectives,” Culture & Psychology, Dec. 1998, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 487–497

Bilodeau, W., “Writing, research and education,” Interchange, 1993, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 241–270

Birner, B.J., “Metaphor and the reshaping of our cognitive fabric,” Zygon, Mar. 2004, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 39–48

Bishop, E.L., “Metaphor and the subversive process of Woolf, Virginia Essays,” Style, Winter 1987, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 573–588

Blank, G.D, “Metaphors in the lexicon,” Metaphor and Symbolic Activity, 1988, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 21–36

Blum, S.D., “Five approaches to explaining ‘truth’ and ‘deception’ in human communication,” Journal of Anthropological Research, Fall 2005, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 289–315

Bokeno, R.M., “Introduction: Appraisals of organizational learning as emancipatory change,” Journal of Organizational Change Management, 2003, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 603–618

Boland, R.J., Singh, J., Salipante, P., Aram, J.D., Fay, S.Y., Kanawattanachai, P., “Knowledge representations and knowledge transfer,” Academy of Management Journal, Apr.  2001, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 393–417

Boland, R.J., Tenkasi, R.V., “Perspective-making and perspective-taking in communities of knowing,” Organization Science, Jul.–Aug. 1995, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 350–372

Bowdle, B.F., Gentner, D., “The career of metaphor,” Psychological Review, Jan. 2005, vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 193–216

Bowers, C.A., “Educational computing and the ecological crisis: Some questions about our curriculum priorities,” Journal of Curriculum Studies, Jan.–Feb. 1990, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 72–76

Bradburn, E., “The metaphorical space of Meredith’s ‘Diana of the Crossways,’ ” Studies in English Literature 1500–1900, Fall 2003, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 877–895

Brand, E., “The process of identifying children’s mental model of their own learning as inferred from learning a song,” Bulletin of the Council for Research in Musical Education, Fall 1998, no. 138, pp. 47–61

Brooks, F.B., Donato, R, “Vygotskyan approaches to understanding foreign-language learner discourse during communicative tasks,” Hispania—A Journal Devoted to the Teaching of Spanish and Portuguese, May 1994, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 262–274

Brown, G., “Focus, coherence and emphasis: Werth, R.,” Journal of Literary Semantics, Aug. 1986, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 142–145

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Bryant, A., “Chinese encyclopaedias and Balinese cockfights: Lessons for business-process change and knowledge management,” Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management, Proceedings—SE Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, 2000, vol. 1937, pp. 274–287

Bryant, A., “Metaphor, myth and mimicry: The bases of software engineering,” Annals of Software Engineering, 2000, vol. 10, pp. 273–292

Budiu, R., Anderson, J.R., “Interpretation-based processing: A unified theory of semantic sentence comprehension,” Cognitive Science, Jan.–Feb. 2004, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 1–44

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Budwig, N., “The contribution of language to the study of mind: A tool for researchers and children,” Human Development, Nov.–Dec. 1999, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 362–368

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Carlile, P.R., “A pragmatic view of knowledge and boundaries: Boundary objects in new-product development,” Organization Science, Jul.–Aug. 2002, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 442–455

Carlile, P.R., “Transferring, translating, and transforming: An integrative framework for managing knowledge across boundaries,” Organization Science, Sep.–Oct. 2004, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 555–568

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Cekaite, A., Aronsson, K., “Repetition and joking in children’s second-language conversations: Playful recyclings in an immersion classroom,” Discourse Studies, Aug., 2004, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 373–392

Charteris-Black, J., “Britain as a container: Immigration metaphors in the 2005 election campaign,” Discourse and Society, Sep. 2006, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 563–581

Charteris-Black, J., “Second-language figurative proficiency: A comparative study of Malay and English,” Applied Linguistics, Mar. 2002, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 104–133

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Clark, K.M., Cunningham, D.J., “Metaphors we teach by: An embodied cognitive analysis of No Child Left Behind,” Semiotica, 2006, vol. 161, no. 1–4, pp. 265–289

Clausner, T.C., Croft, W., “Productivity and schematicity in metaphors,” Cognitive Science, Jul.–Sep. 1997, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 247–282

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